Vitamins in Dukan Diet

March 30, 2012

in Food List

Many people wonder if there’s a need for vitamin supplementation in Dukan diet. I’ve been pondering over it myself and created this list of the most essential vitamins and their dietary sources based on the list of dukan diet safe foods.

This is not a complete list, obviously. But it gives you the picture whether the recommended and allowed dukan diet foods are enough to meet the body’s daily requirements for vitamins.

Personally, I never felt bad on Dukan diet. As a matter of fact, when I was following the dukan’s plan I felt really fresh, energetic and healthy. This is why I always assumed that the variety of foods I ate on Dukan diet was well balanced and there were no need to supplement it with any vitamins.

That said, note that if your doctor says you should take medications of any kind, you should listen to you doctor. This list indicates the products that are rich in some elements but I might not have taken into consideration some important factors here. Those factors include, but are not limited to, bio-availability of vitamins in different foods and under various conditions.[note color="#F7D2D7"]Important note!

I neither advise nor discourage anybody to use any dietary supplements but if you do remember this:

Because of the potential for side effects and interactions with medications, you should take dietary supplements only under the supervision of a knowledgeable health care provider.[/note] This list main purpose is to show you that the foods you consume while on Dukan diet can provide very much the same (or even greater) amounts of vitamins as some vitamin supplements.

Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)

[box title="RDI & Toxicity" color="#358C84"] [list style="arrow"]
  • Adults = 1.1 mg/day
[/list] [list style="check"]
  • Toxicity is not a problem.
[/list] [/box] Vitamin B1 is a co-enzyme that plays vital role in metabolism of carbohydrates and branched-chain amino acids. Also, it strengthens the immune system and improve the body’s ability to withstand stressful conditions. It’ s rare to be deficient in thiamine, although the body does not store it.

Dukan Diet Foods high in Vitamin B1

Pork

In general pork is pretty fatty, so chose only the leanest cuts while on dukan diet. There are many lean cured pork hams and similar products to be found on the market.

[label style="info"]Example[/label]100 grams (3.5 oz) of cured boneless extra lean pork ham (5% of fat) provides approx. 0.8 mg of thiamin (= 72% RDI).

Fish

The list of fish high in thiamin include: salmon, mackerel, yellow fin tuna, and many others.

[label style="info"]Example[/label]100 grams (3.5 oz) of yellowfin tuna provides approx. 0.4 mg of thiamin (=36% RDI).

Oat bran

[label style="info"]Example[/label] 2 tbsp (1 oz / 28 g) of oat bran provides approx. 0.3 mg of thiamin (=27% RDI).

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

[box title="RDI & Toxicity" color="#358C84"] [list style="arrow"]
  • Adults = 1.6 mg/day
[/list] [list style="check"]
  • Toxicity is not a problem but doses higher than 200 mg may cause urine color alteration
[/list] [/box]

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) plays vital role in numerous oxidation and reduction reactions. It works as an antioxidant by fighting  free radicals. It is also needed to help the body change vitamin B6 and folate into forms it can use. It is also important for body growth and red blood cell production.

Dukan Diet Foods high in Vitamin B2

Liver

All kinds of liver is very high in riboflavin, a few that stand out the most are: lamb liver, beef liver, pork liver, and turkey liver.

[label style="info"]Example[/label] 100 g of pork liver provides approx. 3 mg of riboflavin (=187% RDI). It is enough to say, that you will need just a bite or two of liver to satisfy your body’s daily requirement for vitamin B2.

Fish

Cuttlefish and mackerel are the two species that stand out here. Even though cuttlefish has more riboflavin than mackerel, I beleive that mackerel is more popular, so the example below refers to the mackerel.

[label style="info"]Example[/label] 100 g of cooked mackerel provides approx. 0.6 mg of riboflavin (=38% RDI).

Eggs

Quail eggs are particularly high in vitamin B2.

[label style="info"]Example[/label] 100 g of quail eggs (that’s around 10 eggs; they are very small) contain approx. 0.8 mg of riboflavin (= 50% RDI).

Spirulina

Spirulina is a kind of edible seaweed. It is very high in many vitamins and minerals which makes this product an excellent natural dietary supplement.

[label style="info"]Example[/label] 1 tbsp (7g) of dried spirulina provides approx. 0.3 mg of riboflavin (=19% RDI).

Dried herbs and some spices

Dried herbs like coriander, spearmint or parsley, and spices like paprika, or chilli powder are very high in vitamins in general. Although you don’t usually eat them in large quantities (as in one meal), they can be a good source of valuable nutrients when used on regular basis.

[label style="info"]Example[/label] 1 tbsp of paprika (7g) provides approx. 0.1 mg of riboflavin (=6% RDI).

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

[box title="RDI & Toxicity" color="#358C84"] [list style="arrow"]
  • Adults = 18 mg/day
[/list] [list style="cross"]
  • Doses larger than 150 mg may cause problems (ranging from facial flushing to liver disease).
[/list] [/box]

This vitamin helps maintain adequate HDL-cholesterol levels in the blood and thus lower the risk of heart disease. Because of the potential for side effects and interactions with medications, you should take dietary supplements only under the supervision of a knowledgeable health care provider.

Dukan Diet Foods high in Vitamin B3

Lean meat

Lean veal, chicken breast, beef sirloin are, among others, very high in niacin.

[label style="info"]Example[/label] 100 g of chicken breast contains approx. 14.8 mg of niacin (=92% RDI).

Fish

Fish species that are good sources of vitamin B3 include: anchovy, tuna, sturgeon, mackerel, salmon, swordfish, trout, cod and many others.

[label style="info"]Example[/label] a portion of 100 g of canned tuna (in brine) provides approx. 13.3 mg of niacin (=83% RDI).

Liver

As in many other examples, animal liver is also high in vitamin B3. The most valuable niacin sources here are beef liver and lamb liver.

[label style="info"]Example[/label] a portion of 100 g of pan-fried beef liver contains approx. 17.5 mg of niacin (=109% RDI).

Dried herbs & spices

Some herbs and spices are high in vitamin B3. The most prominent here are: paprika, coriander leaf, tarragon, pepper, parsley, chili powder, mustard seed, and basil.

[label style="info"]Example[/label] 1 tbsp (7g) of dried paprika contains approx. 1.0 mg of niacin (= 6% RDI).

Vitamin B6

[box title="RDI & Toxicity" color="#358C84"] [list style="arrow"]
  • Adults = 1.3 mg/day
[/list] [list style="cross"]
  • Doses larger than 100 mg may cause numbness and tingling in hands and feet
[/list] [/box]

This vitamin plays a vital role in protein diets, like the Dukan Diet beacuse it helps breaking down proteins. So, the more protein you eat, the more vitamin B6 you need. Other functions of vitamin B6 range from making antibodies & maintaining the nerve system to making hemoglobin (vit. B6 deficiency can cause anemia) and keeping blood sugar in normal range (also important for people with overweight problems).

Dukan Diet Foods high in Vitamin B3

Fish

Tuna, Salmon, and Cod are probably the best sources of vitamin B6 in this food category.

[label style="info"]Example[/label]100 g of cooked wild Atlantic salmon contains approx. 0.9 mg of vitamin B6 (=69% RDI).

Garlic

Garlic is not the food you’d eat in large quantities. There are a few smelly reasons for that :). Nevertheless, it is not uncommon to use garlic (or garlic powder) as a fine condiment with various kinds of meat or dairy products.

[label style="info"]Example[/label]100 g of raw garlic (that’s an equivalent of 30 cloves) contains approx. 1.2 mg of vitamin B6 (=92% RDI).

Pork

Lean pork, such as sirloin, is a good source of vitamin B6.

[label style="info"]Example[/label] 100 g of extra-lean pork sirloin contains approx. 0.8 mg of vitamin B6 (=61% RDI).

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

[box title="RDI & Toxicity" color="#358C84"] [list style="arrow"]
  • Adults = 6 µg/day
[/list] [list style="cross"]
  • Doses larger than 3000 µg may cause eye conditions
[/list] [/box]

Vitamin B12 contributes to the formation of red blood cells and bone marrow, the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins and the production of genetic materials. It’s rare for young (non-vegan) people to be deficient in vitamin B12, but it’s not uncommon for older people to be mildly deficient.

Dukan Diet Foods high in Vitamin B12

Most researchers agree that the accessible form of vitamin B12 can found only in animal foods. However, some vegan diet advocates claim that the human intestinal tract contains B12-producing bacteria and, as long as gut bacteria have cobalt (+ some other nutrients), they are able to produce vitamin B12.

Seafood

This group is quite vast. To name just a few good sources of vitamin B12, we’ve got: clams, oysters, mussels, caviar (fish eggs), octopus, crab, lobster.

[label style="info"]Example[/label] 100 grams of canned clams contains approx. 100 µg of vitamin B12 (=1666% RDI). Given that doses above 3000 µg of vitamin B12 can cause problems, do not eat more than 3kg of clams per day :).

Fish

Fish like mackerel, herring, Sslmon, tuna, cod, sardines, trout, and bluefish, to list just a few.

[label style="info"]Example[/label] 100 g of mackerel provides approx. 15.6 µg od vitamin B12 (=260% RDI)

Liver

Liver, as usual, turns out to be a good source of valuable nutrients.

[label style="info"]Example[/label]100 g of pork liver contains approx. 18.7 µg of vitamin B12 (=311% RDI).

Eggs

Eggs are often mentioned as a good B12 source, but they also contain a factor that blocks absorption. However, the binding capacity of heat treated egg yolks and egg whites is diminished.

[label style="info"]Example[/label] 1 large (50g) hard-boiled egg provides approx. 0.6 µg of vitamin B12 (=10% RDI).

Beef

Lean bean is also a good source of B12.

[label style="info"]Example[/label] 1 beef round steak (203 g, lean only, trimmed to 0″ fat, 5% fat) provides approx. 10.9 µg of vitamin B12 (=181% RDI).

Vitamin B5 (Pantothenate or Pantothenic Acid)

[box title="RDI & Toxicity" color="#358C84"] [list style="arrow"]
  • Adults = 5 mg/day
[/list] [list style="cross"]
  • Dose exceeding 1200 mg may cause nausea and heartburn
[/list] [/box]

Vitamin B5 is critical to the production of red blood cells, as well as sex and stress-related hormones. Vitamin B5 is also important in maintaining a healthy digestive tract, and it helps the body use other vitamins (particularly B2 or riboflavin).

Dukan Diet Foods high in Vitamin B5

Liver

Livers from most animals are high in B5.

[label style="info"]Example[/label]100 g of simmered chicken liver contains approx. 6.7 mg of pantothenic acid (=134% RDI).

Shiitake mushrooms

Shiitake is an edible mushroom native to East Asia, which is cultivated and consumed in many Asian countries, as well as being dried and exported to many countries around the world.

[label style="info"]Example[/label]7 dried shiitake mushrooms (1 oz / 28 g) contain approx. 5.6 mg of pantothenic acid (=112% RDI).

Caviar

Caviar is not one of the cheapest delicacy out there, but if you happen to eat it, don’t worry about vitamin B5.

[label style="info"]Example[/label]6 tbsp of caviar (that’s roughly 100g) provides 3.6 mg of pantothenic acid (=72% RDI).

Fish

Salmon, trout and cod are among species most high in Vitamin B5.

[label style="info"]Example[/label]Half of a salmon fillet (154g) provides approx. 3.0 mg of pantothenic acid (=60% RDI).

Vitamin B7 aka Vitamin H (Biotin)

[box title="RDI & Toxicity" color="#358C84"] [list style="arrow"]
  • Adults = 30 µg/day
[/list] [list style="check"]
  • Biotin is considered non-toxic
[/list] [/box]

Biotin is necessary for cell growth, the production of fatty acids, and the metabolism of fats and amino acids. It plays a role in generating energy during aerobic respiration. Commercial food-processing techniques can destroy biotin. So, the less processed the food is the more biotin it contains.

Dukan Diet Foods high in Vitamin B7

Eggs

Eggs are a good source of vitamin H, although diet high in egg whites can actually cause biotin deficiency. That’s because a specific element in the egg whites that prevents biotin from being distributed properly. That said, however, the effect described above can be minimized by the consumption of whole eggs (whites with yolks).

[label style="info"]Example[/label]1 large, whole egg (50g) provides approx. 22 µg of biotin (=73% RDI).

Chicken Liver

[label style="info"]Example[/label]A portion of 28g (1 oz) of pan-fried chicken liver provides approx. 36.4 µg of biotin (=121% RDI).

Milk products

Milk and dairy products (cow’s and goat’s milk) are good sources of biotin.

[label style="info"]Example[/label]100 g of plain yogurt contains approx. 5 µg of biotin (=16% RDI)

Caviar

[label style="info"]Example[/label]100 g of cod roe contains approx. 15 µg of biotin (=50% RDI).

Vitamin B9 (Folate, Folic Acid)

[box title="RDI & Toxicity" color="#358C84"] [list style="arrow"]
  • Adults = 400 µg/day
[/list] [list style="cross"]
  • Doses larger than 1000 µg may cause anaemia and may mask symptoms of a vitamin B12 deficiency
[/list] [/box]

Vitamin B9 (folic acid and folate inclusive) is especially important in aiding rapid cell division and growth. Children and adults both require folic acid to produce healthy red blood cells and prevent anemia

Dukan Diet Foods high in Vitamin B7

Dietary folate deficiency is very uncommon as normal individuals have about 500–20,000 µg of folate in body stores. Basically, you do not to worry whether what you eat during the Attack Phase or PP days in Cruise Phase is high in vitamin B9. Nevertheless, here are some examples.

Liver

Chicken liver is a good source of folate.

[label style="info"]Example[/label] 1 oz (28g) of pan-fried chicken liver contains approx. 157 µg of folate (=39% RDI).

Eggs

[label style="info"]Example[/label] 1 large (50g) whole fried egg contains approx. 24 µg of folate (=6% RDI).

Vitamin C

[box title="RDI & Toxicity" color="#358C84"] [list style="arrow"]
  • Adults = 45 mg/day
[/list] [list style="check"]
  • No impacts of over dose have been proven
[/list] [/box]

Main dietary sources of vitamin C are various fruits and vegetables. There aren’t many products of animal origin that are high in vitamin C to easily satiate the body’s daily requirement. On the other hand, there are some foods that you can introduce to your dukan diet menu to make sure you’re getting enough vitamin C. That being said, vitamin C is widely used as a food additive, thus some cured meats can actually be pretty good sources of vitamin C after all (check the ingredient label for ascorbic acid).

Dukan Diet Foods high in Vitamin C

Herbs

Many fresh or dried herbs that are usually added to meats are pretty high in vitamin C. Here’s a short list: coriander leaf, chives, dill weed, fresh basil, and many more (fresh and green usually means ‘rich in vitamin C’).

[label style="info"]Example[/label]1 tbsp of dried coriander leaf (2g) contain approx. 10 mg of vitamin C (=25% RDI).

Canned marinated bell peppers

Dukan says, that you may add some canned peppers to your Attack Phase and PP days menu. Of course you should eat peppers in moderation. A portion of 100g / 3.5 oz a day is enough.

[label style="info"]Example[/label]100 g of canned red peppers contain approx. 46.5 mg of vitamin C (=103% RDI).

Sauerkraut

Attack Phase compliant sauerkraut is a good source of vitamin C.

[label style="info"]Example[/label]100 g of sauerkraut provides approx. 14.7 mg of vitamin C (=32% RDI).

Chicken liver

[label style="info"]Example[/label]A portion of 1 oz (28g) of simmered chicken liver provides approx. 7.8 mg of vitamin C (=19% RDI).

Vitamin A

[box title="RDI & Toxicity" color="#358C84"] [list style="arrow"]
  • Adults = 300 µg/day
[/list] [list style="check"]
  • Extremely high doses (>9000 mg) can cause dry, scaly skin, fatigue, nausea, loss of appetite, bone and joint pains and headaches
[/list] [/box]

Vitamin A plays a role in a variety of functions throughout the body, such as: Antioxidant activity, Vision, Bone metabolism, Skin and cellular health, and many others. Human body can store two year’s worth of Vitamin A in the liver. If you don’t eat enough Vitamin A on a regular basis, it is usually not a problem.

Dukan Diet Foods high in Vitamin A

Preformed vitamin A is found almost exclusively in animal products, such as liver and fish liver oils (especially), egg yolk.

[label style="info"]Example[/label]1 large hard-boiled egg (50g) provides approx. 20 µg of vitamin A (=6% RDI).

Vitamin D

[box title="RDI & Toxicity" color="#358C84"] [list style="arrow"]
  • Adults = 5 µg/day
[/list] [list style="check"]
  • Can be toxic in large amounts but foods contain low levels, and have not been known to cause overdose
[/list] [/box]

Although vitamin D is commonly called a vitamin, it is not in the sense an essential dietary vitamin as it can be synthesized in adequate amounts by all mammals from sunlight.

Dukan Diet Foods high in Vitamin D

Because vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin, the body can store it for long periods (30 – 60 days).

Oily fish, liver, eggs, some mushroom

[label style="info"]Example[/label]100 g of cooked white button mushroom provides 0.7 µg of vitamin D (=14% RDI).

Vitamin E

[box title="RDI & Toxicity" color="#358C84"] [list style="arrow"]
  • Adults = 10 mg/day
[/list] [list style="cross"]
  • Doses larger than 1000 mg cause blood clotting, which results in increased likelihood of haemorrhage
[/list] [/box]

Vitamin E has many biological functions; the best known is probably the antioxidant function. Vitamin E is found in most human body tissues. The highest vitamin E contents are found in the adipose tissue, liver and muscles, thus the depletion of vitamin E tissue stores takes a very long time.

Dukan Diet Foods high in Vitamin E

Good sources of vitamin E include: liver (beef), eggs, fish, red bell peppers.

[label style="info"]Example[/label]100 g of salmon provides approx. 3.6 mg of vitamin E (=36% RDI).

Vitamin K

[box title="RDI & Toxicity" color="#358C84"] [list style="arrow"]
  • Adults = 55 — 65 µg/day
[/list] [list style="cross"]
  • Although the natural K1 and K2 forms are nontoxic, the synthetic form K3 (menadione) has shown toxicity
[/list] [/box]

Vitamin K helps your blood to clot normally, protect your bones from fracturing, prevents postmenopausal bone loss and calcification of arteries. Possibly, vitamin K can also help protecting against liver and prostate cancer.

Dukan Diet Foods high in Vitamin K

Green leafy vegetables

This group is vast, so let’s talk about these vegs that can be safely included into the Attack Phase and PP days menu. The most prominent vegetable here is chives. I use it a lot myself (e.g scrambled eggs with tons of fresh chopped chives instead of chopped onions).

[label style="info"]Example[/label]1 tbsp (that’s only 3g) of raw chives contains cca. 6.4 µg of Vitamin K, that is (=10% RDI)!

Beef

Lean beef cuts are also decent sources of vitamin K. Let’s see…

[label style="info"]Example[/label]A portion of 100 g of beef top round (5% of fat) contains approx. 17.5 µg of vitamin K (=26% RDI).

Notes

Every item on the list above consists of several elements:

General info

Vitamin name (or names) and brief description of its functions. This was meant to be very short. If you need more info on vitamins, refer to these useful links I used:

List of vitamins at wikipedia.org

Complementary and Alternative Medicine Guide: Supplements at umm.edu

Toxicity

Information about toxicity. In most cases, this information about possible overdose side effects refers to vitamins administered and consumed in a form of synthetic supplements. It is very rare to overdose most vitamins by just eating natural products (= foods that haven’t been enriched with vitamin additives).

Because of the potential for side effects and interactions with medications, you should take dietary supplements only under the supervision of a knowledgeable health care provider.

RDI = Recommended Daily Intake

Recommended daily intake for adults (usually an average value for males and females. Various sources often give different answers to the question of an adequate daily intake. That being so, I took the liberty to choose the sources I trusted most. If you want to know the exact value for your age, gender or condition please refer to the useful links below:

Human Vitamin and Mineral Requirements at fao.org

Recommended daily intake of vitamins and minerals at lenntech.com

Dukan Diet foods high in vitamins

An exemplary list of Dukan diet safe foods that are high in the vitamin in question. This list has never been meant to be complete or arbitrary in any way. As far as vitamin supplementation is concerned, most dieters’ main worry is wheter they supply enough vitamins during the pure protein days (i.e. the Attack Phase + PP days in Phase II). The foods I listed are just examples of what you can eat on Dukan diet to make sure you’re getting enough vitamin of each kind.

The exemplary foods are mostly Attack Phase compliant products. This is because I wanted to show you that when it comes to vitamins, you are pretty safe even during the most strict phases of the Dukan diet.

In general, starting with phase II PV (protein + vegetables), your menu gets full of every vitamin your body may need, so I felt that there’s no point in listing tens of vegetables’ names next to each and every vitamin description.


{ 1 comment… read it below or add one }

John March 30, 2012 at 11:58 AM

Great article, very useful! Thanks.

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